We take a progressive, contemporary approach to Jewish life, which integrates a deep respect for traditional Judaism with the insights and ideas of contemporary social, intellectual and spiritual life.
In May 2009, the Little Minyan entered into the covenantal relationship of affiliation with the Jewish Reconstructionist Movement. In 2011, all Reconstructionist congregations and havurot across North America united with the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College under one umbrella – the Jewish Reconstructionist Movement.
So, what is Reconstructionist Judaism? Reconstructionists define Judaism as more than a religion. For us, it is an ever-evolving way of life, encompassing history, literature, art and music, land and language. We believe that we are involved in active Judaism. We cherish the traditional spiritual foundation bequeathed to us, and we are open to new interpretations and forms of religious expression. We are responsible for shaping the spiritual legacy we will leave to future generations.
Founding of Reconstructionism
The founder of the reconstructionist movement, Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, launched the movement in the 1920’s, incorporating the American ideals of equality and democracy into the study and practice of Jewish life. Kaplan’s beliefs endorsed traditional Jewish customs and practices, but the reasoning behind them changed.
- Kaplan promoted the idea that rituals are made holy due to the unity and community of the people performing them, as opposed to the traditional Jewish view that God’s command is what makes rituals mandatory.
- Kaplan saw Judaism not as a religion, but as a civilization, characterized by beliefs and practices, as well as language, culture, literature, ethics, art, history, social organization, symbols, and customs. He promoted the notion of a synagogue-center that offered religious prayer services as well as study programs, drama, dance, song, sports and exercise.
- He encouraged democracy in the synagogue community and advocated voluntary membership, elected leadership, and respect for the religious opinions of individuals.
Tenets of Reconstructionism
- Judaism is an Evolving Tradition
Reconstructionism is a “bottom-up” approach to Judaism. It begins with the experiences of the Jewish people. It speaks less of revelation and more of discovery. It emphasizes connection, opportunity and responsibility over commandment.
- Judaism is a Spiritual Path
Reconstructionist Jews understand Judaism primarily as a spiritual path, the means by which the search for ultimate meaning in life is conducted. God is the source of meaning, the power within that urges us toward generosity, responsibility, concern and self-fulfillment. God is found when we look for meaning in the world and work to realize the goals of morality and justice.
- Jewish People Share Past, Present and Future
Reconstructionist Jews believe the Jewish people share historical memory and destiny, a commitment to the Hebrew language and the land of Israel and are heirs to a rich legacy of thought, laughter and tears that continues to grow in our day.
- Jews Choose the Covenant
Reconstructionists diverge from definitions of Judaism that see God as choosing Israel from among other nations, initiating the covenant and revealing the law. They believe it is the Jewish people who choose to live in a context of covenant, through which tradition becomes holy. They believe in an historic mission, to witness the divine presence throughout the world, and especially to testify that every human life is sacred, created in the divine image.
- Reconstructionists are Religious Humanists
Reconstructionists believe in the human authorship of all religious traditions, including their own, and they realize that no tradition has a monopoly on religious truth. Reconstructionists believe that all peoples are called to build a world of justice and compassion, and we welcome dialogue with persons of good will in all traditions.
The following article by Rabbi Lester Bronstein, found on the website of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College (RRC), is designed to address that question “on one foot.”
A Crash Course on Reconstructionist Judaism
If you advertise yourself as a Reconstructionist rabbi, people will inevitably corner you with “the” question: “Can you tell me—in a few words—what Reconstructionist Judaism is all about?”
In formulating a response that I could quickly pull out of my back pocket, I long ago decided not to lead people into the abyss of “two civilizations,” “vote-not-a-veto,” and other cul-de-sacs of Reconstructionist jargon. Instead, I like to approach the question by mentioning three arms which are vitally central to every form of Judaism, and I try to show people how Reconstructionist Jews (and, truth be told, a myriad of Jews around the world) view these matters in a way that is different from traditional Judaism, but surprisingly close to the spirit of that tradition.
My three litmus topics are Torah, prayer and ritual, and mitzvot. Here are my few words on each.
Torah: Tradition tells us that the Torah was dictated by God to Moses, and then transmitted through the generations. Reconstructionist Jews see the Torah as the Jewish people’s response to God’s presence in the world (and not God’s gift to us). That is to say, the Jews wrote the Torah. But that is not to say that the Torah is merely a human creation. It is a response to the sacred. It is an attempt to convince an entire people to view everyday life in a sacred way.
Yes, it is intriguing to apply the tools of history, science and chronology to the Torah. These vehicles give us the historical and natural context of the Torah. But they don’t give us the essence of the Torah. The essential Torah is neither the tidal explanation for the parting of the sea, nor the geological definition of the primordial flood nor the cosmological identification of “let there be light.” The essential Torah consists in the truth deep within these stories, a truth that radiates a picture of a society based on courts of justice and on social empathy. God didn’t write that Torah, since God does not write per se. But God is everywhere in the details of it.
Prayer and Ritual: On the face of it, the text of the siddur suggests that our prayers are direct recitations and petitions to a God who is “other” and who, we hope, is listening and contemplating a favorable response. Reconstructionist Jews retain the traditional language of Jewish prayer, but not the obvious understanding of its meaning and function.
Rather, we understand prayer to help us perform the task of awakening. We need to awaken ourselves to the miracle that is life and to the obligations that inhere in that life. We believe that we are the primary respondents to our own prayers, and that we need prayer to remind us of the Godly values behind our benevolent actions in the world. We also understand prayer as a way of calling out to others in the world, in the hope that they, too, would sign on to the Godly enterprise of healing, caring, and righting injustice.
In sum, prayer and ritual are the Jewish people’s way of heightening our awareness of the sacredness of life, of clarifying and reiterating our moral values and of marking time and space in a sacred way.
Mitzvot: The word mitzvah means “commandment,” and tradition literally understands mitzvot to be direct commandments from God, via the Torah. As such, we might utilize a mitzvah as an opportunity for meaningful relationship with God or our own souls, but we are obligated to perform the deed in any case, regardless of any spiritual uplift it may or may not provide.
As you would expect, Reconstructionist Judaism teaches that the mitzvot are our own invention. Mitzvot are our particularly Jewish ways of responding to the universal God. We perceive God as demanding sacredness in general, and the Jewish mitzvot are our people’s way of bringing that universal sacredness to the minutiae of daily life in our own specifically Jewish context.
In this system, God does not choose the Jews to be performers of the commandments. Rather, the Jews choose to be called by God by means of a vast network of sacred acts (mitzvot) ranging from balancing work and rest (Shabbat), to establishing courts and laws, to sexual fidelity, filial respect, medical ethics and the rhythms of the seasons. (Hence, asher ker’vanu la’avodato, “who has called us to your service.”) Paradoxically, it is the mitzvot that keep us Jewish, but which simultaneously attune us to the greater universe of which we are a tiny part.
How do people respond to these sorts of answers? Clearly, most have never heard them before. They are not the answers they were expecting. Some love the responses, some are skeptical and some know that they simply have to let the information seep in. My hope is that this crash course in Reconstructionist Judaism leads people to see this movement not as a loosely defined “anything goes” religion, but as a serious modern attempt to understand Judaism as a discipline, as a life path and as a response to the holiness that fills our world.
Here is a link to a variety of writings and podcasts by Reconstructionist rabbis, writers, social justice advocates and others.